According to a study carried out by Business Europe in 2013, double taxation remains a problem for European SMEs and a barrier to cross-border trade and investment.   Problems include limiting the ability to deduct interest, foreign tax credits, stable settlement issues, and differences in qualifications or interpretations. Germany and Italy have been identified as the Member States where most cases of double taxation have been identified. The protocol amending the India-Maurice Agreement, signed on 10 May 2016, provides for a capital gains tax at the source of the shares acquired in a company established in India from 1 April 2017. At the same time, investments made before April 1, 2017 have not been classified as capital gains tax in India. If these capital gains occur during the transitional period from April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019, the tax rate is capped at 50% of India`s internal tax rate. However, the benefit of a 50% reduction in the tax rate during the transitional period is subject to the reserve requirement. Taxation in India at the full national rate is applied from the 2019/20 fiscal year. Countries can either reduce or avoid double taxation by granting a tax exemption for income from foreign sources, or a foreign tax credit (FTC) for taxes from foreign sources. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a group of 36 countries that wants to promote global trade and economic progress.
The OECD tax treaty on income and capital is more favourable to capital-exporting countries than capital-importing countries. The two countries concerned will benefit from such an agreement if the trade and investment flows between the two countries are reasonably the same and the country of residence taxes all income exempt from the country of origin. This section describes the application of double taxation agreements (DTCs) in the case of international recruitment of workers by non-resident companies (staff rental companies). Cyprus has 45 double taxation agreements and is negotiating with many other countries. Under these agreements, a credit is normally accepted against the tax collected by the country in which the taxpayer is established for taxes collected in the other contracting country, resulting in the taxpayer not paying more than the higher of the two rates. Some contracts provide for an additional tax credit that would otherwise have been due had it not been provided for incentives in the other country, which would have resulted in an exemption or tax reduction. There are two types of double taxation: double taxation and double economic taxation. In the first case, where the source rule overlaps, the tax is collected by two or more countries, in accordance with their national legislation, for the same transaction, the income is born or applies in their respective jurisdictions. In the latter case, when the same transaction, the element of income or capital is taxed in two or more states, but in the hands of another person, there is double taxation.
 In principle, an Australian resident is taxed on his or her global income, while a non-resident is taxed only on income from Australian sources. Both parties to the principle can increase taxation in more than one jurisdiction. In order to avoid double taxation of income through different legal systems, Australia has agreements with a number of other countries to avoid double taxation, in which the two countries agree on the taxes that will be paid to which country.